The agricultural sector is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which are the main driver of climate change. Scientists now predict that there could be shifts in typical precipitation and temperature patterns, as well as in general weather conditions, and strongly indicate that these changes are brought on by industry. Climate change reciprocally poses numerous threats to our current food system, increasing farmers’ sense of risk and uncertainty. Shifting our food production system to more sustainable practices will help reduce agriculture’s role in climate change and also help make this industry become more resilient and adaptable to ever-changing conditions.

What Does Agriculture Have to Do with Climate Change?

Agricultural products come with varying degrees of associated greenhouse gas emissions along the food production and distribution chain. These emissions are known as a “carbon footprint.” (These days, the term “carbon footprint” is used as a catchall phrase for all the climate-change-causing greenhouse gases, not just carbon dioxide or other carbon derivatives.) 1 For example, some vegetables grown under ecologically sound agricultural principles may have a very low carbon footprint, whereas animals raised in factory farm conditions with large uncovered animal waste lagoons could have a high carbon footprint. 2

Agricultural activities, like manure treatment, farm equipment use and synthetic fertilizer application, have carbon footprints, too. In the US, agriculture accounts for nine percent of GHG emissions. Greenhouse gases, with carbon dioxide (CO2) being the most prominent, increase the planet’s ability to absorb and retain heat and thus contribute to climate change. Other GHGs involved in agriculture include: methane (CH4), produced by livestock; nitrous oxide (N2O), generally associated with synthetic fertilizer application; and carbon dioxide, produced by both the burning of fossil fuels and grassland loss/deforestation. 34

The FoodPrint of Beef

Learn more about the impacts of industrial beef production on air, soil and water.

Learn More

Carbon Footprints of Meat

Not all food is produced in the same manner: some foods have greater inputs of land, fertilizer (synthetic or organic) and energy and therefore a greater warming potential, or carbon footprint.

A 2017 Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) report studied 197 foods, using lifecycle analyses to approximate the climate warming potential of each food. 5 The report found that the food with the highest carbon footprint was conventionally raised beef. When one pound of conventional feedlot beef is produced, 26 pounds of carbon dioxide equivalent are emitted. (The term “carbon dioxide equivalent”, or CO2-eq, is used to “normalize” the different potencies of multiple greenhouse gases, including nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane, among others, into standard units. Read more about this measurement here from Yale Climate Connections.)

Industrial meat and dairy production requires significant quantities of animal feed, which is grown with synthetic fertilizers. The production of synthetic fertilizers contribute primarily to overall CO2 emissions, while the use of them contribute to nitrous oxide emissions (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas (see Conventional Crop Production, below). 67 Ruminant animals (like cows) also emit significant quantities of methane through enteric fermentation (essentially, the breaking down of feed materials in an animal’s gut). Methane is also produced by confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs), which process manure anaerobically (without oxygen) in manure lagoons and pits. 8 As a greenhouse gas, methane is 25 times more powerful than carbon dioxide.9

A Better Way to Raise Beef

Globally, livestock contribute 14.5 percent of all anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. 10 However, a better way to raise beef exists. More sustainable animal husbandry and welfare practices  can use manure as a fertilizer to help turn the land into a carbon sink. Rotating pasture-raised animals and crops can help sequester carbon, improve soil and help prevent water pollution.

Farmers who raise cattle on pasture can use field, livestock and waste management programs that reduce emissions associated with ruminants’ manure. 11 The Food Climate Research Network reported on several studies which investigated the potential of pasture-raised ruminants’ ability to sequester carbon in soil. 12 The group found that the sequestration potential from the management of grazing could offset “20 to 60 percent of annual average emissions from the grazing ruminant sector.” Another recent report also showed that well pastured beef could sequester a significant proportion of carbon produced on the farm, even suggesting that a negative carbon benefit is possible. 13 With smaller herd management of animals on pasture, manure is composted directly into the soil and becomes fertilizer for a healthy pasture, with less methane released, as well. 14

Efficiently mitigating livestock’s contribution to greenhouse gases is an important effort, but only one reason to produce beef more sustainably.

26 pounds

of carbon dioxide are emitted when one pound of feedlot beef is produced

Anaerobic Manure Digesters

Anaerobic manure digesters are sometimes promoted as a means by which confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) can dispose of their animal waste in a manner that is more environmentally and climate friendly. Digesters use a combination of microbes, heat, water and agitation to process waste, producing methane gas that can be used for energy, liquid manure that can be used for fertilizer and solid manure that can be used for composting and cow bedding.

Despite federal and state financial investments for the new technology, there is growing skepticism about digesters. A 2016 report by Food and Water Watch details the ways in which digesters do not live up to their promise of cleaning waste and mitigating greenhouse gases — and instead serve as a subsidy to the CAFO industry, further entrenching the confinement model of food production. 15 According to Food and Water Watch, digesters do not capture all of the methane they produce, and in burning methane, produce GHG carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, as well. 16

Conventional Crop Production and Synthetic Nitrogen Fertilizers

Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers are produced from fossil fuels (like coal and natural gas) and are used extensively in conventional crop production. Globally, the use of synthetic fertilizers contribute to about 13 percent of agricultural GHG emissions. 17

While nitrogen fertilizers have improved yields worldwide, recent studies indicate that the increased use of nitrogen-based fertilizers over the last 50 years has increased the rates of nitrous oxide emissions exponentially, as compared with the rate of use of other fertilizers. 18 What this means is a large rise in atmospheric nitrous oxide — a greenhouse gas 300 times more potent than CO2.

Land Use

As discussed above, conventional land use management practices for crop or animal production can act as a carbon source, while more sustainable practices can act as a carbon sink — sucking up and storing the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

Tilling soil can expose carbon that was locked to the elements in the soil and can facilitate erosion, making low-till or no-till farming a more sustainable option. One of the larger carbon sources is the expansion of cropland for growing conventional animal feed and the resulting loss of grasslands and forests in converting the land for grazing. Two thirds of available agricultural land worldwide is used for animal production, which includes marginal land for grazing and other land used for feed crops. Some incentives, like rising crop prices, may make taking land out of conservation more attractive to farmers, in turn eliminating that carbon sink. 19

Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss

As farms and ranchland expand, concerns about agricultural methods of deforestation mount. It is estimated that agriculture is responsible for 75 percent of global deforestation. 20 For example, when many trees are agriculturally clear cut, the loss of trees alters the hydrological (water) cycle in a specific climate: this can result in local climate change. Likewise, when forests are burned down for agricultural purposes, the burning trees release their sequestered carbon into the atmosphere, adding to greenhouse gas emissions: this can result in climate change locally and globally.

It is not only climate change that is of growing concern, but biodiversity loss, as well. Deforestation goes hand-in-hand with the loss of species within a given ecosystem. Broadly, biodiversity loss can cause disruptions in ecosystems, which in turn can produce a wide range of negative effects, including soil, water and air degradation. 21 Biodiversity loss can also cause declines in an ecosystem’s ability to cope with extreme weather events and other effects of climate change. According to the National Climate Assessment, biodiversity is directly impacted by climate change, from the timing of biological events (like plant growing patterns), to shifts in the range of certain species including their extinction. 22

Carbon Farming

If managed well, farms can use practices that act as carbon sinks to help take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and sequester it in the soil on the farm, helping to fight climate change. 23 24 The central methods of carbon farming include: using a seed drill to avoid tilling the soil and make it possible to plant seeds beneath the surface without disrupting the topsoil, covering the soil with organic mulch to prevent carbon losses, composting, rotating livestock on fields and planting cover crops. Rotating livestock on these fields, as is done with grassfed cattle, uses the animals’ waste as a fertilizer to enhance soil conditions.

How Does Climate Change Affect Agriculture?

If climate change occurs unchecked, the agriculture sector will feel the effects in a disproportionate measure depending on geography. 25 In general, climate change results in temperature, weather and precipitation, becoming more extreme in both directions. Some parts of the country may become wetter or dryer, experience more heat waves or suffer from prolonged drought.  Since agricultural practices are developed to interact with the local or regional climate, changing climates will negatively affect growing seasons and animal health. If conditions become too extreme, some currently productive agricultural areas may need to relocate or adapt to the new conditions. 26


Rising temperatures and changing precipitation patterns will certainly decrease crop productivity in some areas and encourage the proliferation of weeds. Rain events (periods of extreme wetness or unusually little rain are now occurring more frequently around the country, in several regions. 27 Extreme precipitation can cause soil erosion and may impact the ability of farmers to control water systems with the current methods of field drainage. And drought could be more prevalent in other areas. Many pests and pathogens associated with plants thrive in warmer climates, which could pose an additional threat to crops and, in conventional crop production, will necessitate more pesticide use. 2829 Finally, rising atmospheric CO2 levels may also be affecting the nutritional quality of crops, decreasing their protein content. 30

Animal Agriculture

Livestock and chickens are vulnerable to temperature swings: high temperatures may especially affect animal health and can also affect meat quality, due to overheating, which stresses animals’ immune systems. Production of milk, eggs and other animal products could also decrease due to extreme temperatures. 31

Pests, invasive species and diseases may proliferate in higher temperatures and affect produce and animal agriculture. Rangelands could also shift, altering productive lands for grazing cattle. Extreme weather events, such as drought or flooding, may decrease livestock productivity through disruption of food and water supplies, lower metabolic rates and reproductive stress. 32

Resilience and Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture

To counter the anticipated effects of climate change, agricultural systems need to become more resilient and able to cope with certain weather events, natural disasters or increasingly scarce resources (like water). A certain adaptability can be built into agricultural systems: through the decentralization of crop and livestock production and the expansion of local and regional food systems to avoid systemic risks, agricultural systems can become more dynamic and sustainable.

Short-term adaptation techniques are already available to implement as the need arises. Farmers can change field operations’ timing to adapt to any early or late season changes. They can also shift the types of crop, to plant varieties that have higher yields in new local climate conditions. And by changing irrigation or tilling practices, farmers can adjust to more or less precipitation and help prevent soil runoff. Long term resilience will have to adjust to scarce resources, primarily land and water.

Fossil Fuel Use and Alternative Energy Projects for Farmers

Modern agriculture and its use of machines, like tractors, combines and trucks, depends on the burning of fossil fuels, which contribute to greenhouse gas emissions. Synthetic fertilizers are derived by fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere with hydrogen derived primarily from fossil fuels (natural gas) to produce ammonia to enhance crop growth. 33 After fertilizer application, bacteria can break down the nitrogen fertilizer to produce nitrous oxide, a greenhouse gas. The food system also relies on fossil fuels for transportation, for preservation of food products (refrigeration, freezing, canning) and, in industrial animal agriculture systems, to heat, cool and ventilate confined animal facilities and to produce animal feed.

Some farmers are looking at options to reduce fossil fuel consumption and use energy more efficiently, and even to generate renewable energy on their land. 34 It is important to note that alternative energy projects, such as those described here, are often large capital investments with the return on investment happening over a long time, and therefore might not be the most attractive option to small farming operations.

Solar Energy on Farms

Farms are well suited for taking advantage of solar energy to decrease their reliance on fossil fuels. Solar electric systems can help farmers power their homes, barns, other structures and electric motors. Remote solar electric systems — those not connected to the power grid — can use batteries to store the energy and can be useful in cases when extending the existing electricity lines would be uneconomical. Solar thermal energy can be harnessed in a number of ways: solar energy can heat water for use in cleaning or in hot water systems; structures can be designed to collect solar energy to dry grains and other crops; and greenhouses can be designed to maximize solar exposure to reduce the need to heat a building with gas or oil. 35

Using Wind Power

In general, farmers have three options to harness the benefits of wind power on their farm. First, farmers can use a wind turbine to generate electricity on the farm to be used for the home or operations. Second, farmers could work with a wind developer, providing land and deriving lease payments as another revenue stream. Finally, farmers could develop their own wind farms and sell the electricity into the market. 36

In sum, solar and wind energy together offer several options for farmers to reduce their carbon footprint, while potentially adding economic benefits to generate income or to save on energy bills. These alternative energy technologies also provide marketing strategies for farmers to promote their products, as well as potential educational opportunities for farm visitors.

What You Can Do

  • Eat lower on the food chain. Plant-based foods can provide good nutrition while having a lower carbon footprint than meat.
  • Choose local, seasonal, organic and sustainable food when possible; sustainable food options usually come with a smaller carbon footprint.
  • Choose grassfed meat over industrially produced meat from factory farms when you can. Learn more about meat and animal product labels in our Food Label Guide.
  • Eat whole foods instead of processed foods when possible. Processed food uses energy that emits greenhouse gases.

Hide References

  1. Berners-Lee, Mike and Clark, Duncan. “What is a carbon footprint?” The Guardian, June 4, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  2. US Environmental Protection Agency. “Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” EPA, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  3. Ibid.
  4. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. “Carbon Dioxide.” NASA, 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  5. Natural Resources Defense Council. “Less Beef, Less Carbon: Americans Shrink Their Diet-Related Carbon Footprint by 10 Percent Between 2005 and 2014.” NRDC, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  6. Madrigal, Alexis. “How to Make Fertilizer Appear Out of Thin Air, Part I.” Wired, May 7, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  7. Shcherbak, Iurii, et al. “Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(25), 9199-9204, June 24, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  8. Food and Water Watch. “Hard to Digest: Greenwashing Manure into Renewable Energy.” FWW, November 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  9. Ibid.
  10. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. “Key facts and findings: By the numbers: GHG emissions by livestock.” FAO, September 26, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  11. US Environmental Protection Agency. “Agriculture Sector Emissions: Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” EPA, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  12. Garnett, Tara et al. “Grazed and confused? Ruminating on cattle, grazing systems, methane, nitrous oxide, the soil carbon sequestration question – and what it all means for greenhouse gas emissions.” Food Climate Research Network, University of Oxford, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  13. Stanley, Paige L. et al. “Impacts of soil carbon sequestration on life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in Midwestern USA beef finishing systems.” Agricultural Systems, 162, 249-258, May 2018. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  14. Food and Water Watch. “Hard to Digest: Greenwashing Manure into Renewable Energy.” FWW, November 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Cruz, Amy. “Flipping the issue: agriculture contributes to climate change?” CGIAR, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  18. Shcherbak, Iurii, et al. “Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(25), 9199-9204, June 24, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  19. Walsh, Bryan. “As Crop Prices Rise, Farmland Expands—and the Environment Suffers.” Time, February 20, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  20. Cruz, Amy. “Flipping the issue: agriculture contributes to climate change?” CGIAR, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  21. Johnson, Christopher N. et al. “Biodiversity losses and conservation responses in the Anthropocene.” Science, 356(6335), 270-275, April 21, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  22. National Climate Assessment. “Ecosystems and Biodiversity.” US Global Change Research Program, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  23. Barth, Brian. “Carbon Farming: Hope for a Hot Planet.” Modern Farmer, March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  24. McPhate, Mike. “California Today: To Fight Climate Change, Heal the Ground.” The New York Times, May 31, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  25. Joyce, Christopher. “Mapping The Potential Economic Effects of Climate Change.” NPR, June 29, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  26. National Climate Assessment. “Agriculture.” US Global Change Research Program, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  27. McKenna, Phil. “Extreme Weather Flooding the Midwest Looks a Lot Like Climate Change.” InsideClimate News, May 6, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  28. Walsh, Bryan. “A Warmer World Will Mean More Pests and Pathogens for Crops.” Time, September 2, 2013. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  29. National Climate Assessment. “Agriculture.” US Global Change Research Program, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from  
  30. Medek, Danielle E. “Estimated Effects of Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations on Protein Intake and the Risk of Protein Deficiency by Country and Region.” Environmental Health Perspectives, August 2, 2017. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  31. Key, Nigel and Sneeringer, Stacy. “Greater Heat Stress From Climate Change Could Lower Dairy Productivity.” USDA Economic Service, November 3, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  32. National Climate Assessment. “Agriculture.” US Global Change Research Program, 2014. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from
  33. University of Cambridge. “Improving ammonia synthesis could have major implications for agriculture and energy.” ScienceDaily, November 22, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  34. Climate Change Facts.  “Farm Energy, Carbon, and Greenhouse Gases.” Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, November 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  35. Union of Concerned Scientists. “Up with the Sun: Solar Energy and Agriculture.” Union of Concerned Scientists, 2003. Retrieved March 12, 2019, from 
  36. Union of Concerned Scientists. “Farming the Wind: Wind Power and Agriculture.” Union of Concerned Scientists, 2003. Retrieved March 12, 2019. From