Real Food Encyclopedia | Mustard
When Hippocrates uttered the famous words, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,” he was surely talking about the mustard seed. These tiny powerhouses, the progeny of the mustard plant, are seemingly innocuous. They’re nearly flavorless when whole. But crack or grind these minuscule miracles and add a splash of water and — pow! — mustard shows its muscle. That’s because the grinding unleashes two compounds, myrosin and sinigrin that, when mixed with liquid, create a chemical reaction that gives mustard its heat. The resulting paste can not only flavor your game day dog; it can clear your sinuses and cure your boo-boos, too.
Ancient Greeks and Romans enjoyed a version of prepared mustard, the condiment of ground mustard mixed with liquid that we commonly refer to as “mustard” today. They would grind the seeds at the table, similar to how we grind peppercorns, and then swirl the powder with a little wine or verjus (the juice from unripened grapes) to make a paste to season their food.
Mustard reigned until the spice routes opened up, bringing exotic flavors to Europe and crowding out the more commonplace mustard seed. Then, in 1777, two guys with some forward-thinking taste buds, Maurice Grey and Antoine Poupon, replaced the standard vinegar in prepared mustard with white wine, creating a smoother, milder condiment. Dijon mustard was created and mustard was back on the map.
In the United States, mustard was firmly established as a condiment staple at the 1904 World’s Fair where a new type of treat, the hot dog, was also making its debut. The two have been together ever since.
Fun Facts about Mustard:
- Mustard is the leading spice worldwide: more than 300,000 metric tons are produced each year.
- The United States consumes more mustard than any other country.
- All parts of the mustard plant are edible: the seeds, the leaves and flowers.
Sustainability of Mustard
Mustard and Soil Health
Mustard plants are pretty hardy and don’t require a lot of chemical inputs to thrive. In fact, mustard is a nitrogen-fixing cover crop, which means that it enriches the soil in which it is grown, increasing its fertility.
Growing Your Own Mustard Seed
Mustard is easy to grow and self-seeds as a weed if allowed to do so. Seeds mature anywhere from 60 to 95 days from sowing. The seedpods must be harvested as soon as they begin to turn from green to tan, or they will burst and scatter.
If you are harvesting your own mustard seed, hang the ripe plants upside down in a dry, well-ventilated place. Tie paper bags around the plants to encase the pods. When fully dry, in about two weeks, the pods will burst, releasing the seeds into the bag. Carefully untie the bags from the plants and shake out onto a wooden cutting board. Separate the seeds from any plant matter by slightly tipping the board over towel. The seeds will roll down and onto the cloth. Transfer to an airtight container and store in a cool, dark place.
Mustard plants like cool weather. Plant three weeks before the last frost for a spring harvest and mid-summer for a fall harvest.
Mustard plants bolt in hot weather (when warm temps set in, the plant rapidly produces seed). Although this might sound like a good way to get a stash of mustard seeds going quickly, bolted seeds are inferior to those that ripen on their own time.
Stored in an airtight container in a cool, dark place, mustard seeds maintain their flavor for three to four years.
Prepared mustard has antibacterial qualities and requires no refrigeration but keeping the condiment cold preserves its pungency. You can expect an opened jar of the condiment to maintain its flavor for a month on the counter and up to a year if refrigerated.
Cooking with Mustard
Make your own: Add mustard to your list of DIY skills. It’s super easy.
Salad dressing: mustard is a great emulsifier, so it makes a creamy, smooth dressing out of ingredients such as vinegar and oil that are always trying to separate. (Pro Tip: if you’re nervous about a sauce, such as Hollandaise, separating, add a dash of mustard to keep it intact.)
Marinade: what is a marinade but a stronger version of a vinaigrette? Mustard tastes good on everything.
You can pickle mustard seeds for fun and flavor, but you needn’t do so to preserve them.
When making your own mustard, you’ll need to add a splash of vinegar to maintain the condiments kick. Once the crushed or powdered seeds are mixed with liquid, they will reach their full potency in about 10-15 minutes. After that, the mixture will begin to mellow rapidly, loosing much of its flavor within an hour. Vinegar or other acid, such as wine or citrus juice, will halt this decline. Acidification plus refrigeration will preserve prepared mustard the longest.
Not only tasty, the mustard plant also has significant health benefits. Mustard seeds contain nutrients called isothiocyanates that have been shown to prevent the growth of cancer cells, particularly with regards to stomach and colon cancer. The seeds also contain selenium, which reduces the severity of asthma and rheumatoid arthritis, and magnesium, which may reduce high blood pressure and the frequency of migraines.
Spicy mustard oil, popular in Asian cooking, is making the leap to western kitchens where chefs appreciate its sinus clearing umph and clear flavors. Many eaters believe strongly in the oil’s health properties, such as its antibacterial, antifungal, and antirheumatic effects. However, the oil’s high level of erucic acid, linked in animal tests to health issues, has it banned in the United States for kitchen use. Asian cooks and other adopters, however, are bullish on the benefits of including mustard oil in their diets. They believe any fear about the product is unfounded and cite generations of good health by frequent consumers as evidence.