Real Food Encyclopedia | Persimmons
The persimmon is definitely one of the more esoteric finds at your local farmers’ market. Despite being the national fruit of Japan, the autumnal hued fruit still elicits head scratches sometimes in the US. Add that to a sometimes astringent, bitter flavor and you’ve got a recipe for confusion. But give it a try and you’ll realize the persimmon is one tasty treat.
First, there are two types of persimmons: Asian and American.
Diospyros kaki, or the Japanese persimmon, is the fruit typically found in markets stateside. With a history that stretches back 2,000 years to Asia, it is one of the oldest cultivated plants in the world, used as both a source of food and medicine. Persimmons arrive in markets in autumn and are often preserved through a labor intensive drying process, which intensifies sweetness and minimizes their puckering astringency. The two varieties most commonly found are the tomato shaped Fuyu and the acorn shaped Hachiya.
Although originally from China, these cultivars are referred to as Japanese because Commodore Matthew C. Perry brought their seeds back to the US after his historic expedition to Japan in the 1850s. Later, Japanese immigrants to California in the early 20th Century added another dash of cross-cultural pollination, planting persimmon trees where they settled.
Japanese persimmons’ North American cousin. D. virginiana, is consumed mostly by wild edible enthusiasts or those lucky enough to have a tree growing in their backyard. Its history dates back to prehistoric times. Native Americans ate it dried or as an ingredient in loaves of bread. In fact, the word persimmon is an Anglicized version of pessamin or putchamin, one of the few Algonquin words to survive into English. It means “dried fruit.”
Captain John Smith of Jamestown fame wrote in 1607, “If it is not ripe, it will drive a man’s mouth awrie with much torment. But when it is ripe, it is as delicious as an apricock.”
Fun Facts about Persimmons:
- Their genus name, diospyros, is greek for “food of the gods.”
- Digyna, a persimmon native to Mexico, is said to taste like chocolate pudding when ripe. It shouldn’t be confused with the Maru, aka the chocolate persimmon, which is a rare cultivar from Asia.
- Roasted and ground persimmon seeds were a substitute for coffee during the scarcities of the Civil War.
- In the Buddhist religion, persimmons are a symbol of transformation. In China, they are an auspicious gift to newlyweds to celebrate eternal love.
What to Look for When Buying Persimmons
Beyond the geographical divide, persimmons fall into two categories — astringent and non-astringent. Astringent varieties such as the Japanese Hachiya and the American persimmon are sharp and bitter in taste unless they have been carefully ripened to the point of a jelly-soft consistency on the inside. Non-astringent varieties such as the Fuyu can be eaten out of hand, skin and all. Persimmons are also notable for their deep orange or red coloring.
To tell the difference between astringent and non-astringent Japanese persimmons, remember red Hachiyas are acorn-shaped and inedible unless ripened and orange Fuyus are tomato-shaped and ripe when you purchase them. Hachiyas will likely be sold underripe so don’t be confused by their crisp texture or tempted to eat one before it’s soft. Your mouth will not be pleased if you do! It’s said that a Hachiya is ripe when it feels heavy and squishy like a water balloon. Also keep an eye out for good, rich coloring and a green calyx. Black streaks on the skin of a Hachiya are not uncommon and are not a sign of rot.
Sustainability of Persimmons
As persimmons are not frequently cultivated in the US, they have little environmental impact here. However the majority grown in the world come from China, a country that doesn’t have the best record when it comes to sustainable agricultural practices.
If you’re lucky enough to live on the west coast, October and November is the height of persimmon season, and fruits are readily found in markets into December. The rest of us will have to keep a sharp eye out at specialty stores or make friends with neighbors who have access to trees.
As for the Asian variety, it’s still not that common to come across persimmons in your local market, probably owing to a couple of factors. One, persimmons do not ship well and when they do ship they are often sent unripe. Two, because of its mild climate and a history of persimmon cultivation, California commercially grows the most fruit in the US – and not much at that. For the most part, the persimmon remains an exotic fruit either foraged in the wild, grown for small scale commercial production or grown as an ornamental tree.
To ripen your Hachiya, store leaf side down on your kitchen counter. This process can take days and should not be rushed lest you get a mouthful of tannins. Fuyus, however, need to maintain a crisp consistency and are better stored in the refrigerator.
There are two shortcuts you can take to hasten ripening. One, you can place a persimmon in a sealed container with an apple or banana, two fruits that produce ethylene gas that will soften a Hachiya in about three to four days. The other technique is to freeze unripe persimmons. Upon fully thawing out, the persimmon is ready to eat when jelly soft, but there are some divisions on whether this shortcut is worth the effort. Allegedly the taste of a thawed persimmon is no match for one that has patiently ripened on your counter or a tree.
While being careful to properly ripen, persimmons are best eaten raw. The Fuyu can be sliced up and added to salads or eaten out of hand like an apple. Fans of the Hachiya praise its pudding-like consistency when fully ripened, using a spoon to scoop out the interior. In fact, the high pectin content in persimmons has historically been used to make jelly and as a thickening agent. The fruit can also be added to muffins and cakes.
Freezing and dehydrating are an excellent way to preserve your persimmon haul. If you have some time on your hands, the traditional Japanese way to preserve persimmons, called hoshigaki, is to string them up and massage them daily for three to five weeks until soft and chewy. You can also make persimmon jelly.
The persimmon is an excellent source of Vitamin A and C. One fruit provides 55 percent and 21 percent of daily recommended values respectively. They are also a good source of fiber and manganese. If the taste wasn’t enough, people should steer clear of unripe persimmons because the tannins, stomach acid and indigestible plant material can form a bezoar: a hard mass that can lead to gastric obstruction and surgery.